Everyone agrees that the number of cavities have plummeted in the U.S. over the last couple of decades, after water fluoridation was introduced (that is why health officials call water fluoridation "one of the ten greatest public health accomplishments of the last century").
That proves that water fluoridation fights cavities, right?
It would, of course, if the cavity levels have not also plummeted in countries which do notfluoridate their water.
Let’s take a look at the scientific literature to get an unvarnished picture on the trends.
Cavity Levels Have Only Plummeted In the U.S. And Other Countries Which Fluoridate Water, Right?
The decline in caries [the scientific term for "cavities"] prevalence in communities without fluoridated water in various countries is well documented. The cause or causes are, at this time, a matter of speculation.
The Journal of Public Health Dentistrynoted in 1985:
Even the most cursory review of the dental literature since 1978 reveals a wealth of data documenting a secular, or long term, generalized decline in dental caries throughout the Western, industrialized world. Reports indicate that this decline has occurred in both fluoridated and fluoride-deficient areas, and in the presence and absence of organized preventive programs.
The prestigious science journal Naturenoted in 1986:
[D]uring the period 1979-81, especially in western Europe where there is little fluoridation, a number of dental examinations were made and compared with surveys carried out a decade or so before. It soon became clear that large reductions in caries had been occurring in unfluoridated areas. The magnitudes of these reductions are generally comparable with those observed in fluoridated areas over similar periods of time
The Journal of the American Dental Association noted in 1988:
The current reported decline in caries tooth decay in the US and other Western industrialized countries has been observed in both fluoridated and nonfluoridated communities, with percentage reductions in each community apparently about the same
I’m not a Hillary fan and I voted for Romney last time, so don’t even think about pigeonholing me into a partisan / bias debate.
But I have to just point out, this is the mentality of the GOP’s presumptive nominee for the Presidency, on how he thinks about Treasury bonds, which are the bedrock of global capitalism and geopolitical stability in the Milky Way gal...
As we reported yesterday, just when Hillary thought the email scandal was behind her, and she could shift her focus to the newly minted GOP presidential nominee Donald Trump, an order by Judge Emmet Sullivan of the U.S. District Court decided to lay out ground rules for interviewing multiple State Department officials, and ordered at least six current and former State Department employees to answer questions, a...
Note: This commentary has been updated to include this morning's release of Nonfarm Employment for April.
Official recession calls are the responsibility of the NBER Business Cycle Dating Committee, which is understandably vague about the specific indicators on which they base their decisions. This committee statement is about as close as they get to identifying their method.
There is, however, a general belief that there are four big indicators that the committee weighs heavily in their cycle identification process. They are:
By Jacob Wolinsky. Originally published at ValueWalk.
SpaceX completes another successful rocket launch and landing [CHARTS]
On Friday, SpaceX successfully launched a Falcon 9 rocket, which delivered a television broadcast satellite into orbit and subsequently landed on an ocean platform. SpaceX was contracted by SKY Perfect JSAT Corp, a Japanese telecommunication company. Friday’s delivery was the fourth successful mission for SpaceX in 2016.
See the following visualizations which highlight relevant figures regarding SpaceX missions, as well as the company’s funding history.
SpaceX Missions by Year
SpaceX Missions by Customer
Space Exploration Technologies Corporation’s Funding History
Two years after Newsweek wrote an inaugural article upon returning to print in which it "unmasked" bitcoin creator Satoshi Nakamoto and which turned out be a hoax (the author "found" Nakamoto using a white pages search), earlier this week the world was fixated on the story of another self-professed bitcoin "creator", this time Australian entrepreneuer Craig Wright, who &quo...
Relypsa Inc (NASDAQ: RLYP) shares have plummeted 51 percent year-to-date, under pressure from debt-financing related concerns. Cantor Fitzgerald’s Mara Goldstein reiterated a Buy rating for the company, while reducing the price target from $42 to $41. The analyst believes the 1Q16 results would be “a stabilizing force for the shares.”
Positive Data Points For Veltassa Launch
Veltassa metrics look favorable so far, including a low payer rejecti...
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Although we try to stay focused on finding and managing promising trade ideas, the comments in the comment section sometimes take a political turn (for access, try PSW — click here!). So today, Jean Luc writes,
The GOP debate last night was just unreal – are these people running to be president of the US or to lead a college fraternity! Comparing tool size? The only guy that looks semi-sane is Kasich. The other guys are just like 3 jackals right now.
And something else – if Trump is the candidate, that little Romney speech yesterday is probably already being made into a commercial. And all these little snippets from the debate will also make some nice ads! If you are a conservative, you have to be scared now.
Phil writes back,
I was expecting them to start throwing poop at each other &n...
This is a non-trading topic, but I wanted to post it during trading hours so as many eyes can see it as possible. Feel free to contact me directly at firstname.lastname@example.org with any questions.
Last fall there was some discussion on the PSW board regarding setting up a YouCaring donation page for a PSW member, Shadowfax. Since then, we have been looking into ways to help get him additional medical services and to pay down his medical debts. After following those leads, we are ready to move ahead with the YouCaring site. (Link is posted below.) Any help you can give will be greatly appreciated; not only to help aid in his medical bill debt, but to also show what a great community this group is.
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