Author Archive for Pharmboy

The two obstacles that are holding back Alzheimer’s research

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The two obstacles that are holding back Alzheimer's research

Courtesy of Todd GoldeUniversity of Florida

File 20171115 19772 2rishs.jpg?ixlib=rb 1.1

Family members often become primary caregivers for loved ones with Alzheimer’s disease. tonkid/Shutterstock.com

Thirty years ago, scientists began to unlock the mysteries regarding the cause of Alzheimer’s disease. This knowledge ushered in an era of great enthusiasm that scientists could develop new therapies to either prevent Alzheimer’s or significantly slow the symptoms once present.

Despite continued progress and renewed hope that some therapies now in human trials will modify the course of the disease, the initial optimism of neuroscientists like me has been significantly tempered by reality. Numerous therapies, most with sound scientific basis, have been tested and shown to be ineffective in humans with symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease.

Like the war on cancer, the war on Alzheimer’s disease is not going to be won in a single glorious “battle.” Instead, I believe incremental yet transformative progress will eventually lead to success. Unlike cancer, the scientific community does not yet have any “survivor stories” to buoy our efforts, and it will take a concerted effort by scientists, pharmaceutical companies, government and society to bring about the reality of ending Alzheimer’s disease. Only by recognizing and confronting all of the obstacles impeding development of Alzheimer’s therapies can we be confident that our battle will be successful.

As a physician-scientist and director of the University of Florida’s McKnight Brain Institute who began studying Alzheimer’s disease in medical school in the late 1980s, I appreciate the scope of the scientific advances we have collectively made. I have also come to the sobering realization that translating these advances into real therapies that will make a difference for patients suffering from this devastating disease is an incredibly complex issue which is not all about the science.

There are two significant, nonscientific obstacles – a shortage of funding and patent law – that will require concerted effort by scientists, concerned citizens, society and our lawmakers to overcome.

Funding is improving, but still lagging

Governments of industrialized nations have recognized research funding for…
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Immunotherapy: Training the body to fight cancer

Reminder: Pharmboy and Ilene are available to chat with Members, comments are found below each post.

 

Immunotherapy: Training the body to fight cancer

Courtesy of Balveen KaurThe Ohio State University and Pravin KaumayaThe Ohio State University

Image 20170202 1665 nzadz6.jpg?ixlib=rb 1.1

An oral squamous cancer cell (white) being attacked by two T cells (red), part of a natural immune response. NIH Image Gallery, CC BY-NC

The human immune system is powerful and complex.

It can identify and destroy invaders of nearly infinite variety, yet spare the more than 30 trillion cells of the healthy body.

Unfortunately, the broken cells of cancer are able to retain, and boost, the “recognize and ignore me” signals of undamaged cells, letting them evade detection by the immune system. As a result, these damaged cells grow unmolested, destroying the normal physiological functioning of tissues and organs.

Armed with new insights into the interactions between cancer and the immune system, research teams are developing novel treatments to harness the full potential of the body’s natural defenses. This is called immunotherapy.

In animal models and clinical trials, breakthrough immunotherapies are emerging, techniques that train the immune system to recognize and attack cancer as the enemy.

One way is through drugs that help the immune system find and destroy cancer cells. Another way is through vaccines that can teach the body to recognize cancer cells.

Recently, studies have paired immunotherapies with modified viruses that attack tumor cells and keep them from returning.

With promising results, such new weapons are providing hope that cancer can ultimately be defeated.

Harnessing the immune system

When foreign cells – like viruses or bacteria – infect the body, the immune system springs into action. It produces antibodies that bind to proteins called antigens on the surface of the foreign cell. Sometimes this is enough to neutralize the foreign cell. In other cases the antibodies bind to the antigen and mark the cell for destruction by T-cells, or both.

Cancer cells also produce antigens. But even though cancer cells are not normal and would otherwise be marked for destruction, antibodies don’t bind to their antigens and the immune system does not destroy…
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Circadian rhythm Nobel: what they discovered and why it matters

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Circadian rhythm Nobel: what they discovered and why it matters

Courtesy of Sally Ferguson, CQUniversity Australia

Today, the “beautiful mechanism” of the body clock, and the group of cells in our brain where it all happens, have shot to prominence. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young for their work on describing the molecular cogs and wheels inside our biological clock.

In the 18th century an astronomer by the name of Jean Jacques d'Ortuous de Marian noted his plants opening and closing their leaves with the cycle of light and dark, with the leaves opening towards the sun. Being an inquisitive chap, he placed the plants in constant darkness and observed that the daily opening and closing of the leaves continued even in the absence of sunlight – indicative of an internal clock.

Subsequent work by others also showed innate daily rhythms in other animals and plants, but the location and inner workings of the biological timing system remained a mystery.

The discovery of a misfiring gene that resulted in disrupted daily rhythms in fruit flies (the unsung heroes of the story) gave the first hint. Over several years, Hall, Rosbash and Young uncovered the machinery of the biological clock.

It’s in your genes.

From the latin circa “about” and diem “a day”, circadian rhythms are internally driven cycles in all living things – including humans – that continue in the absence of external time cues. The sleep/wake cycle is one daily rhythm; core body temperature is another. While we have known since de Marian that physiological systems are controlled internally, the way in which the clock works was a mystery.

The biological clock’s cycle is generated by a feedback loop. Genes are activated which trigger the production of proteins. When protein levels build up to a critical…
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Life frozen in time under an electron microscope gets a Nobel Prize

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Life frozen in time under an electron microscope gets a Nobel Prize

Courtesy of Xavier ConlanDeakin University

File 20171005 21985 15evuaj

The electron microscope’s resolution has radically improved in the last few years, from mostly showing shapeless blobs (left) in 2013 to now being able to visualise proteins at atomic resolution (right) in the present. Martin Ho?gbom/The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences

The scientists who developed the ability to see some of the building blocks of life under the electron microscope have been awarded the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson pioneered cryo-electron microscopy, which the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said both simplifies and improves the imaging of biological molecules, known as biomolecules.

The 9 million Swedish kronor (A$1.4 million) prize is split equally between Dubochet, at Switzerland’s University of Lausanne, Frank, at New York’s Columbia University, and Henderson, at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge in the UK.

The Academy said the method developed by the three researchers had moved biochemistry into a new era. The technology now allows researchers to generate a high resolution view of biomolecules while they exist in their natural state.

The biological lock and key

The human body is amazingly complex and requires the cooperation of a range of biochemical mechanisms, such as digestion and energy production, in order to function well. These intricate processes involve the use of biomolecules, typically large entities made from amino acids – the building blocks of life.

Importantly, just like the construction of any brick-built house, the configuration or placement of the blocks is critical to how well our construction stands up, or how well our biomolecules function.

Furthermore, biomolecules present their capacity to perform tasks by interacting with other entities, such enzymes, in the body. These are based on a specific configuration, much like how only one key can open a particular lock.

The significant challenge overcome by the award-winning team was to develop the capacity to observe the biomolecules…
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Chilled proteins and 3-D images: The cryo-electron microscopy technology that just won a Nobel Prize

Reminder: Pharmboy and Ilene are available to chat with Members, comments are found below each post.

 

Chilled proteins and 3-D images: The cryo-electron microscopy technology that just won a Nobel Prize

Courtesy of Melanie OhiUniversity of Michigan and Michael CianfroccoUniversity of Michigan

File 20171004 31791 6zhlqy

Cryo-electron microscopy resolution continues to improve. Veronica Falconieri, Sriram Subramaniam, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, CC BY-NC

Many people will never have heard of cryo-electron microscopy before the announcement that Jacques Dubochet, Joachim Frank and Richard Henderson had won the 2017 Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work developing this technology. So what is it, and why is it worthy of this honor?

Cryo-electron microscopy – or cryo-EM – is an imaging technology that allows scientists to obtain pictures of the biological “machines” that work inside our cells. Most amazingly, it can reconstruct individual snapshots into movie-like scenes that show how protein components of these biological machines move and interact with each other.

It’s like the difference between having a list of all of the individual parts of an engine versus being able to see the engine fully assembled and running. The parts list can tell you a lot, but there’s no replacement for seeing what you’re studying in action.

What’s revolutionary about cryo-EM is not only that it lets scientists actually see and understand how important biological machines work, but that it allows us to study a vast array of important proteins that can’t be seen using any other structural biology technique.

Advances in both imaging technology and computing have really pushed cryo-EM forward over the last decade or so. Researchers are now able to generate atomic, or near-atomic, resolution 3-D models of challenging molecules – things like receptors that are therapeutic drug targets, molecular motors that deliver cargo to different parts of the cell and emerging viruses that lead to human disease.

Cryo-EM structure of the enzyme beta-galactosidase. EMDB-2984, CC BY-ND

Frozen world of cryo-EM

To obtain an image…
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Scientists are unraveling the mystery of your body’s clock – and soon may be able to reset it

Reminder: Pharmboy and Ilene are available to chat with Members, comments are found below each post.

 

Scientists are unraveling the mystery of your body's clock – and soon may be able to reset it

Courtesy of Carrie L. PartchUniversity of California, Santa Cruz

File 20170913 20251 nxwsbd

Bad night’s sleep? Blame your genes. A. and I. Kruk/shutterstock.com

For people who don’t get sleepy until 2 a.m., the buzz of an alarm clock can feel mighty oppressive.

Relief may be on the horizon, thanks to the discovery this spring of a genetic mutation that causes night-owl behavior.

Whether you’re a night owl or a morning lark rising effortlessly each day with the sun, your sleep habits are regulated by circadian rhythms. These internal clocks control just about every aspect of our health, from appetite and sleep to cell division, hormone production and cardiovascular function.

Like many who study the intricacies of circadian biology, I’m optimistic that one day we’ll be able to design drugs that synchronize our cellular clocks. Bosses frowning on tardy arrivals could soon become a thing of the past.

Our internal clocks

Nearly every cell in your body contains a molecular clock. Every 24 hours or so, dedicated clock proteins interact with one another in a slow dance. Over the course of a day, this slow dance results in the timely expression of genes. This controls when particular processes will occur in your body, such as the release of hormones like sleep-promoting melatonin.

Why are heart attacks and strokes two to three times more common in the early morning? Chalk that up to our internal clocks, which coordinate an increase in blood pressure in the morning to help you wake up. Why should teens listen to their parents’ pleas to go to bed? Because human growth hormone is secreted only once a day, linked to sleeping at night.

Nearly every biological function is intimately linked to our internal clocks. Our bodies are so finely tuned to these cycles that disruptions caused by artificial light increase our risk of obesity, chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer.

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Nobel winners identified molecular ‘cogs’ in the biological clocks that control our circadian rhythms

Reminder: Pharmboy and Ilene are available to chat with Members, comments are found below each post.

 

Nobel winners identified molecular ‘cogs’ in the biological clocks that control our circadian rhythms

Courtesy of Carrie L. PartchUniversity of California, Santa Cruz

File 20171003 12163 1cgw877

‘The key fourth awardee here is … the little fly,’ Hall said. Lynn Ketchum, CC BY-SA

Circadian rhythms control when we’re at our peak performance physically and mentally each day, keeping our lives ticking in time with Earth’s day/night cycle. This year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to three American scientists, Jeffrey Hall and Michael Rosbash of Brandeis University and Michael Young of Rockefeller University, for shedding light on how time is measured each day in biological systems, including our own bodies.

From Darwin’s finches on the Galápagos Islands to modern city dwellers, organisms adapt to their environment. Regular 24-hour cycles of day and night on Earth led to the evolution of biological clocks that reside within our cells. These clocks help us unconsciously pick the best time to rest, search for food, or anticipate danger or predation.

The field of modern circadian biology got its start in the 1970s, when geneticist Seymour Benzer and his student Ron Konopka undertook a revolutionary study to track down the genes that encode biological timing in fruit flies. With that gene in their sights, the labs of Hall, Rosbash and Young ushered in the molecular era of circadian biology as they untangled the molecular mechanisms of biological timekeeping.

Drosophila larvae were the lab subject for the early circadian clock research. IrinaK/Shutterstock.com

Why flies?

To get started, Benzer and Konopka performed a simple experiment: tracking when the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster would emerge from its pupal case. This developmental process, called eclosion, served as a powerful tool to study the complicated biological process of circadian rhythms. Because Drosophila pupae only emerge at a specific time of the day, Konopka could measure the timing between rounds of eclosion for different strains of flies and identify those…
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How we developed a cheap, accurate, on-the-spot test for Ebola

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How we developed a cheap, accurate, on-the-spot test for Ebola

Courtesy of Courtesy of Sterghios MoschosNorthumbria University, Newcastle

File 20170927 24193 1kph8n8

Ebola virus. Nixx Photography/Shutterstock

We have developed technology that reliably detects the Ebola virus in a blood sample seven times faster, ten times cheaper and 700 times safer than doing it in a lab. In fact, the test can be used to detect any genetic material in blood, and so could be used to find everything from malaria to Zika.

Imagine tropical heat. You are wearing a thick, awkward plastic suit that covers you head to toe. Your only access to air is via a respirator; water comes in the form of your own sweat trickling down your eyes. You flex your fingers in your thick, plastic gloves, as you approach yet another person who could kill you: a suffering, feverish, wet patient who may have Ebola virus disease.

You must stick a needle into their vein, get a vial of blood and get it to a diagnostic laboratory. The lab, however, might be several days’ drive away. Until the results are back, the patient, who might have malaria (the symptoms are similar to Ebola), must be kept separate from healthy people. They will be quarantined alongside other suspected cases, some of whom might test positive for Ebola.

Reaching the diagnostic lab, the sample joins a queue of hundreds of samples that need to be manually processed. At the peak of the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak, it took five days or more to get a result. By the time the West responded, this was reduced to between five and eight hours. At a cost of US$100 per test, however, the expense remained prohibitive. The average healthcare spend per person per year in oil-rich Nigeria is about US$118, but in Guinea, where the last Ebola outbreak started, it is just US$9. In the UK, it is about US$4,000.

When it comes to Ebola, testing a blood sample for the virus genome is the most reliable…
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Will whoever controls gene editing control historical memory?

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Will whoever controls gene editing control historical memory?

Courtesy of Julie Louise BaconUNSW

File 20170822 13676 1fqh7gf

Harvard’s recent CRISPR experiment isn’t just a new frontier for science – it’s also a new take on how we conceive of human history. gopixa/Shutterstock.com

In July, Harvard scientists used a gene-editing technology first developed in 2013 to programme bacteria to do something astounding: play back an animation of a galloping horse.

The GIF animation was generated from an iconic image series created in 1878 by the motion-picture pioneer Eadweard Muybridge.

The breakthrough involved the scientists translating image pixels into genetic code, which they fed to the cells one frame at a time. The bacteria incorporated and reproduced the sequence in their DNA, demonstrating the possibility of using living cells as information recording and storage devices.

The tech world was, predictably, agog. But beyond the hype, scientists’ goal of applying the technique to human cells has deep philosophical implications.

A future in which our bodies are used as hard drives could, in effect, change the entire way we conceive of human history and perceive life.

My body, myself. Micah Baldwin, CC BY-SA

The origins of history

Today, it is impossible to imagine a world without history: from the vast array of chronicles housed in the world’s libraries to the countless traces of the past accumulating in the data farms that support the digital cloud, history surrounds us.

But it wasn’t always this way. Starting around 4000 BCE, the rise and spread of city-states, from Mesopotamia to Ancient Greece, radically changed the relationship between humans and our physical world.

New patterns of governance and information technology produced what’s now called “historical time”, a…
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Can low doses of chemicals affect your health? A new report weighs the evidence

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Can low doses of chemicals affect your health? A new report weighs the evidence

Courtesy of Rachel ShafferUniversity of Washington

File 20170817 28123 10gdonh

Assessing the data. LightField Studios/shutterstock.com

Toxicology’s founding father, Paracelsus, is famous for proclaiming that “the dose makes the poison.” This phrase represents a pillar of traditional toxicology: Essentially, chemicals are harmful only at high enough doses.

But increasing evidence suggests that even low levels of “endocrine disrupting chemicals” can interfere with hormonal signals in the body in potentially harmful ways.

Standard toxicity tests don’t always detect the effects that chemicals can have at lower levels. And, even when the data do suggest such effects, scientists and policymakers may not act upon this information in a timely manner.

Recognizing these challenges, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) asked a committee of scientists to study the issue in detail. How can we better identify whether chemicals have effects at low doses? And how can we act on this information to protect public health?

After several years of work, the committee’s report was released by the National Academy of Sciences in July. This landmark report provides the EPA with a strategy to identify and analyze data about low-dose health effects, as well as two case study examples. It is an evidence-based call to action, and scientists and policymakers should take notice.

Case studies

What exactly is a “low dose”? The committee defined this as “external or internal exposure that falls with the range estimated to occur in humans.” That covers any level of chemical exposure that we would encounter in our daily lives.

Adverse health effects, as defined by the committee, can include any biological change that impairs a person’s functional capacity or ability to handle stress, or makes her more susceptible to other exposures.

To help the EPA better identify whether chemicals can have adverse effects at low doses, the committee developed a three-part strategy. First, actively collect a wide range of data with participation from stakeholders and the public. Then, analyze and integrate the…
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Zero Hedge

Chinese Stocks Plummet: Shanghai Tumbles Most In 17 Months As Bond Rout Spreads

Courtesy of ZeroHedge. View original post here.

The euphoria from the year-end melt up in Europe and the US failed to inspire Chinese traders, and overnight China markets suffered sharp losses, with the Shanghai Composite plunging 2.3%, its biggest one day drop since June 2016, over growing fears that the local bond rout is getting out of control. Both the tech-heavy Chinext and the blue chip CSI 300 Index dropped over 3%, as the sharp selloff accelerated in the last hour, as Beijing's "national team" plunge protection buyers failing to make an appearance. There were sixteen decliners for every on...



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Phil's Favorites

The way we tell the story of Hollywood sexual assault and harassment matters

 

The way we tell the story of Hollywood sexual assault and harassment matters

Courtesy of Sarah L. CookGeorgia State University

Hollywood women who have spoken out against sexual harassment.

Reporter Paula Froelich claims she once observed Harvey Weinstein assault a woman at a book party. Her editor responded with, “Maybe it’s not really a story.”

As it turns out, Weinstein and others are becoming a never-ending story, as more women reveal experiences with powerful men – not just in Hollywood, but across multiple industries. Thi...



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Digital Currencies

Bitcoin: An Unknowable Bubble?

Courtesy of ZeroHedge. View original post here.

"Whatever [Bitcoin] is, I missed it... It looks and smells like all the bubbles I have seen throughout history." - billionaire investor Jim Rogers

Authored by Constantin Gurdgiev via True Economics blog,

There is a much-discussed in the crypto-sphere chart making rounds these days, plotting Bitcoin price dynamics against the historical bubbles of the past:

...



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Insider Scoop

8 Stocks To Watch For November 22, 2017

Courtesy of Benzinga.

Related CRM 9 Stock's Moving In Tuesday's After Hours Session Salesforce Falls Despite Q3 Beat The Vetr co...

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Chart School

Russell 2000 and Semiconductor New Highs / S&P Breaks

Courtesy of Declan.

The S&P broke higher to confirm a 'bear trap' and also closed at a new all-time high. Volume climbed to register an accumulation day but there were further losses in relative performance and continued losses in the MACD.


The Nasdaq posted a gap-driven 1% gain to bring it ever closer to channel resistance. It hasn't yet tagged resistance but it looks well placed to do so by the end of the week. Technical are all bullish.

...

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Biotech

The two obstacles that are holding back Alzheimer's research

Reminder: Pharmboy and Ilene are available to chat with Members, comments are found below each post.

 

The two obstacles that are holding back Alzheimer's research

Courtesy of Todd GoldeUniversity of Florida

Family members often become primary caregivers for loved ones with Alzheimer’s disease. tonkid/Shutterstock.com

Thirty years ago, scientists began to unlock the mysteries regarding the cause of Alzheimer’...



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ValueWalk

Robert Mugabe Under House Arrest, Military Takes Control Of Zimbabwe

By Andjela Radmilac. Originally published at ValueWalk.

Zimbabwe’s head of state, 93-year-old Robert Mugabe, has been placed under house arrest after what seems to be a military coup took place in the nation’s capital.

By U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Jesse B. Awalt/Released [Public domain], via Wikimedia CommonsRobert Mugabe is safe

Following numerous reports on social media late Thursday night about the increased military presence in Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, the country’s military took...



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Members' Corner

An Interview with David Brin

Our guest David Brin is an astrophysicist, technology consultant, and best-selling author who speaks, writes, and advises on a range of topics including national defense, creativity, and space exploration. He is also a well-known and influential futurist (one of four “World's Best Futurists,” according to The Urban Developer), and it is his ideas on the future, specifically the future of civilization, that I hope to learn about here.   

Ilene: David, you base many of your predictions of the future on a theory of historica...



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Mapping The Market

Puts things in perspective

Courtesy of Jean-Luc

Puts things in perspective:

The circles don't look to be to scale much!

...

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OpTrader

Swing trading portfolio - week of September 11th, 2017

Reminder: OpTrader is available to chat with Members, comments are found below each post.

 

This post is for all our live virtual trade ideas and daily comments. Please click on "comments" below to follow our live discussion. All of our current  trades are listed in the spreadsheet below, with entry price (1/2 in and All in), and exit prices (1/3 out, 2/3 out, and All out).

We also indicate our stop, which is most of the time the "5 day moving average". All trades, unless indicated, are front-month ATM options. 

Please feel free to participate in the discussion and ask any questions you might have about this virtual portfolio, by clicking on the "comments" link right below.

To learn more about the swing trading virtual portfolio (strategy, performance, FAQ, etc.), please click here ...



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Promotions

NewsWare: Watch Today's Webinar!

 

We have a great guest at today's webinar!

Bill Olsen from NewsWare will be giving us a fun and lively demonstration of the advantages that real-time news provides. NewsWare is a market intelligence tool for news. In today's data driven markets, it is truly beneficial to have a tool that delivers access to the professional sources where you can obtain the facts in real time.

Join our webinar, free, it's open to all. 

Just click here at 1 pm est and join in!

[For more information on NewsWare, click here. For a list of prices: NewsWar...



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Kimble Charting Solutions

Brazil; Waterfall in prices starting? Impact U.S.?

Courtesy of Chris Kimble.

Below looks at the Brazil ETF (EWZ) over the last decade. The rally over the past year has it facing a critical level, from a Power of the Pattern perspective.

CLICK ON CHART TO ENLARGE

EWZ is facing dual resistance at (1), while in a 9-year down trend of lower highs and lower lows. The counter trend rally over the past 17-months has it testing key falling resistance. Did the counter trend reflation rally just end at dual resistance???

If EWZ b...



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All About Trends

Mid-Day Update

Reminder: Harlan is available to chat with Members, comments are found below each post.

Click here for the full report.




To learn more, sign up for David's free newsletter and receive the free report from All About Trends - "How To Outperform 90% Of Wall Street With Just $500 A Week." Tell David PSW sent you. - Ilene...

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About Phil:

Philip R. Davis is a founder Phil's Stock World, a stock and options trading site that teaches the art of options trading to newcomers and devises advanced strategies for expert traders...

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Ilene is editor and affiliate program coordinator for PSW. She manages the site market shadows, archives, more. Contact Ilene to learn about our affiliate and content sharing programs.

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