Posts Tagged ‘supply’

New Bubble Threatens Global Rebound

New Bubble Threatens Global Rebound

bubble economyCourtesy of Mish

Although Belief In Wizards Runs Deep there are a few free thinkers who don’t see it that way. Andy Xie is one of them. Please consider New Bubble Threatens a V-Shaped Rebound.

In a normal economic cycle, an inventory-led recovery would be followed by corporate capital expenditure, leading to employment expansion. Rising employment leads to consumption growth, which expands profitability and more capex. Why won’t it work this time? The reason, as I have argued before, is that a big bubble distorted the global economic structure. Re-matching supply and demand will take a long time.

The process is called Schumpeterian creative destruction. Keynesian thinking ignores structural imbalance and focuses only on aggregate demand. In normal situations, Keynesian thinking is fine. However, when a recession is caused by the bursting of a big bubble, Keynesian thinking no longer works.

The lifespan of a bubble depends on how it affects demand. The longest-lasting are property and technology bubbles. The multiplier effect of a property bubble is multifaceted, stimulating investment and consumption in the short term. The supply chain it impacts is very long. From commodity producers to real estate agents, it could stimulate more than one-fifth of an economy on the supply side. On the demand side, it stimulates credit growth and financial sector earnings, and often boosts consumption through the wealth effect. Because a property bubble is so powerful, the negative effects of a bursting are great. Excess supply created during a bubble’s lifespan takes time to consume. And a bust destroys the credit system.

A technology bubble occurs when investors exaggerate a new technology’s impact on corporate earnings. A breakthrough such as the Internet improves productivity enormously. However, consumers receive most of the benefits. Competition eventually shifts temporarily high corporate profitability toward lower consumer prices. Because the emergence of an important technology brings down consumer prices, central banks often release too much money, which flows into asset markets and creates bubbles. While an underlying technology leads to an economic boom, the bubble feels real. More capital pours into the technology. That leads to overcapacity and destruction of profitability. The bubble bursts when speculators finally realize that corporate earnings won’t rise after all.

The cost of a technology bubble is essentially equal to the amount of over-investment involved. Because a technological breakthrough expands the


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Oil Price vs. Reserves

Oil Price vs. Reserves

Courtesy of Jake at Econompic Data

Reuters details on the reason for Wednesday’s jump in oil:

U.S. stocks rebounded and oil closed above $72 a barrel on Wednesday after data suggested a recovery in U.S. oil demand, a surprise for investors who earlier were fretting over a sharp slide in Chinese equities.

A U.S. government inventory report showed a huge drop in crude supplies last week, boosting oil futures by more than $3 a barrel and lifting Wall Street sentiment that had turned dour after a 4.3 percent a drop in the Shanghai Composite Index .SSEC.

But oil reversed early losses after the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) said crude stocks fell by 8.4 million barrels last week, confounding analysts’ expectations for a rise of 1.3 million barrels.

"I think these (demand) changes are reflective of an improving economy, but one must be cautious because these changes are versus year-ago weak numbers," said API chief economist John Felmy.

Now, a little perspective. A large decline? Yes. But reserves are still up dramatically year over year.
crude oil

The relevance? The relationship between the change in these reserves (shown inversely below) and the price has been rather strong going back 4+ years. That is until the global financial markets began their rebound in March.

But where is all that demand coming from? Back to Reuters:

The decline in crude stocks was caused by rising production in refineries but also by a sharp drop in oil imports, with traders holding more inventories in tankers offshore as they await higher prices.

So is it increased end user-demand (which combined with a weak dollar makes a great story as to why oil could/should rise) OR is it just a technical reaction to traders hoarding oil? The answer to that question goes a long way in determining the future direction of oil.

Source: EIA
 

 


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Price, Demand, and Money Supply as They Relate to Inflation and Deflation

Price, Demand, and Money Supply as They Relate to Inflation and Deflation

Courtesy of Jesse’s Café Américain

There are three basic inputs to the market price of something:

1. Level of Aggregate Supply
2. Level of Aggregate Demand
3. Relative Value of the Medium of Exchange

Let’s consider supply and demand first, since they are the most intuitively obvious.

The market presents an overall demand, and within that demand for individual products in particular.

Supply is the second key component to price. We are not going to go into more detail on it to here, since what we are likely facing now is a decrease in Aggregate Demand.

It can seem a little confusing perhaps. Just keep in mind that if the demand decreases for products overall for whatever reasons, like unemployment, if supply remains available the prices will drop overall with some variance across products because of their inelasticity to change. This is known as the Law of Supply and Demand.

How we do know when Demand is decreasing?

Gross Domestic Product = Consumption + Investment + Government spending + (exports − imports),
or the famous economic equation GDP = C + I + G + (X − M).

Consumption, or Aggregate Demand, is a measurable and key component of our GDP figures.

Given the huge slump in GDP, it should be obvious that we are in a demand driven price deflation on many goods and services.

Now, that covers supply and demand as components of price, but what about money supply?

Money

Notice in the above examples we talk about Price as a value without a label.

Money is a medium of exchange. It is the label which we apply to give a meaning to our economic transactions.

If you are in England, or France, or Argentina, or China, the value label you apply to Price is going to be different.

Money is the predominant medium of exchange that a group of people have agreed to use when engaging in economic transactions.

The source and store of wealth are the ‘credits’ within the system which one uses to exchange for products. The money is the medium of exchange.

If you work for a living, you are exchanging your time and your talent, which is your source of


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